Agriculture and the food industry are usually concerned about how much ozone they would need to apply to achieve their objectives when dealing with ozone and its approval by the FDA. As a rule of thumb, over and above some guidance from the published literature, it is wise for those who would like to use ozone to determine, by testing, the appropriate dosage and exposure times for the agricultural and/or food products they want to treat.

Ozone Exposure/dosage Recommendations

An ozone exposure/dosage table (illustrated below) is included in the Food Additive Petition submitted to the FDA. As a guide, these data are most helpful for prospective ozonators, with the caution that the ozonator must determine the minimum dosage and exposure level required (Good Manufacturing Practice) to reach the desired effects.

It is also crucial that prospective users determine the maximum dose or exposure level of ozone that will cause damage to the agricultural product being treated.

By evaluating ozone in this way for each potential application, users can easily determine their dose or exposure range.

As a result, the user will be able to choose ozone treatment conditions that will always ensure both achieving the intended effects of ozone and avoiding excess ozone that can damage food products.

Continuous Ozone Treatment Conditions For Certain Products

Here are some examples of continuous ozone treatment conditions for certain specific food products.

Food Type and ApplicationMinimum Residual Level in Air mg/m3 (ppm)Minimum Residual Level in Water mg/L (ppm)Minimum Treatment Time, minutesComments and/or References
Poultry carcasses630EPRI, 1999b
Salmonella on chicken carcasses0.3530Caracciolo, 1990 – 40 MPN/g Salm –> <3. 930 Proteus --> 9
Poultry chiller water3.0-4.545Sheldon & Brown, 1986a; 78, 91, 81% redns of APC, coliforms and Salmonella
Spent broiler neck chiller water3.0-4.515Sheldon & Chang, 1987a; 99.5, 99.52, 99.5, 99.9% redns of APC, coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella
Poultry chiller water3-07 15-30 – BOC Macron™ LoopArk. Ag. Exptl. Sta., 1997; > 90% redns of APC, E. coli, and coliforms
Poultry hatchery – air disinfectant1.51-1.65% by weight8Whistler & Sheldon, 1989b; >4-7-logs redn in bacteria & fungi
Chicken Broiler Parts3.820Yang & Chen, 1979b; 85-90% count reduction
Beef muscle slices0.6constant @ 0.3 CKaess & Weidemann, 1968
Fresh mackerel, gutted and washed0.630Haraguchi et al., 1969; Washing repeated E.O.D.
Vibrio control in shrimp mariculture0.07-0.08 (seawater)3-6 hrsBlogoslawski et al., 1993