Agriculture and the food industry are usually concerned about how much ozone they would need to apply to achieve their objectives when dealing with ozone and its approval by the FDA. As a rule of thumb, over and above some guidance from the published literature, it is wise for those who would like to use ozone to determine, by testing, the appropriate dosage and exposure times for the agricultural and/or food products they want to treat.
Ozone Exposure/dosage Recommendations
An ozone exposure/dosage table (illustrated below) is included in the Food Additive Petition submitted to the FDA. As a guide, these data are most helpful for prospective ozonators, with the caution that the ozonator must determine the minimum dosage and exposure level required (Good Manufacturing Practice) to reach the desired effects.
It is also crucial that prospective users determine the maximum dose or exposure level of ozone that will cause damage to the agricultural product being treated.
By evaluating ozone in this way for each potential application, users can easily determine their dose or exposure range.
As a result, the user will be able to choose ozone treatment conditions that will always ensure both achieving the intended effects of ozone and avoiding excess ozone that can damage food products.
Continuous Ozone Treatment Conditions For Certain Products
Here are some examples of continuous ozone treatment conditions for certain specific food products.
|Food Type and Application||Minimum Residual Level in Air mg/m3 (ppm)||Minimum Residual Level in Water mg/L (ppm)||Minimum Treatment Time, minutes||Comments and/or References|
|Poultry carcasses||6||30||EPRI, 1999b|
|Salmonella on chicken carcasses||0.35||30||Caracciolo, 1990 – 40 MPN/g Salm –> <3. 930 Proteus --> 9|
|Poultry chiller water||3.0-4.5||45||Sheldon & Brown, 1986a; 78, 91, 81% redns of APC, coliforms and Salmonella|
|Spent broiler neck chiller water||3.0-4.5||15||Sheldon & Chang, 1987a; 99.5, 99.52, 99.5, 99.9% redns of APC, coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella|
|Poultry chiller water||3-07||15-30 – BOC Macron™ Loop||Ark. Ag. Exptl. Sta., 1997; > 90% redns of APC, E. coli, and coliforms|
|Poultry hatchery – air disinfectant||1.51-1.65% by weight||8||Whistler & Sheldon, 1989b; >4-7-logs redn in bacteria & fungi|
|Chicken Broiler Parts||3.8||20||Yang & Chen, 1979b; 85-90% count reduction|
|Beef muscle slices||0.6||constant @ 0.3 C||Kaess & Weidemann, 1968|
|Fresh mackerel, gutted and washed||0.6||30||Haraguchi et al., 1969; Washing repeated E.O.D.|
|Vibrio control in shrimp mariculture||0.07-0.08 (seawater)||3-6 hrs||Blogoslawski et al., 1993|
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