Chlorine has long been used in water treatment. The benefit of chlorine is that it may be manufactured quickly and relatively inexpensively, making it a good choice for small-scale production. Pathogens are efficiently destroyed by chlorine. It helps to ensure that surface water-derived drinking water is safe.  

Groundwater provides half of all drinking water in the United States. In certain situations, surface water from rivers and lakes is utilized. The disinfection of drinking water in the United States is largely done with chlorine. Alternative disinfectants, such as ozone, have been used in water disinfection process.

Standards for Drinking Water Disinfection in the USA

In 1914, the first drinking water quality standard was implemented. The maximum number of bacteria allowed in a liter of water was specified at 100 organisms per liter. Coliform bacteria were permitted at less than 2 per 100 milliliters of water. Lead, copper, and zinc were added to the list of regulated metals in subsequent years. Existing regulations were ratcheted up. Obligated maximum pollution levels for hazardous chemical and biological pollutants were established.  

Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA, 1972) is a reform to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1948) that sets out the basic principles for pollution discharge into water. The CWA was formed to improve and maintain the chemical, biological, and physical quality of all water in the United States (including oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater, and wetlands) by repairing and preserving it. EPA acquired the authority to create water pollution standards as a result of the CWA.

Safe Drinking Water Act

In 1974, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) came into effect. Its goal is to keep drinking water safe. After the identification of a variety of (industrial) pollutants in drinking water and the creation of disinfection byproducts, concern for the drinking water quality increased in America. The EPA establishes drinking water standards in order to safeguard public health. Drinking water is treated to removes contaminants and is then tested in order to meet these requirements. After the passage of the SDWA, the quality of drinking water in the United States has improved dramatically.

US Government Approval of Ozone

Ozone water has been granted a variety of accreditations by regulatory bodies. In 2001, the US FDA approved ozonated water as an antimicrobial agent for direct food contact (Federal Register 66(123):33829-33830, June 26, 2001). Ozone generator is not only safe, but it’s also extremely effective. In the early 1980s, the FDA gave approval to ozone as a disinfectant and sanitizer for bottled water consumed by millions of people all around the world.

In 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration transferred its oversight of “sanitizers” to the US Environmental Protection Agency, which refers to ozone as a “sanitizer” for direct food contact and commercial food processing equipment disinfection.

Bottom Line

Ozone is an efficient and non-toxic disinfectant because it leaves no chemical residues, as chlorination does. As a result of this, business owners who desire to have a less damaging effect on the environment in their daily operations are turning to ozone more frequently. Ozone sanitation systems have several long-term cost savings, making them more popular among dentists, hotels, food and beverage, and commercial cleaning and laundry industries.